Acetaminophen 500 mg is an Extra Strength over the counter medicine that does not require a prescription. This is a non-aspirin pain relief medicine that is a cost effective alternate to Tylenol Extra Strength. Acetaminophen is often also used as a fever reducing agent. Common uses of Acetaminophen are to treat fevers, colds, headaches, toothaches, backaches, muscle aches, menstrual cramps, and arthritis. Patients are discouraged to use this product for a prolonged periods of time without physician's approval.